China was ruled by the Qing dynasty from 1644 for over 2000 years. After the Xinhai Revolution of 1911 that overthrew the Qing dynasty, the Kuomintang, lead by Sun Yat-Sen, was formed. At this point there was only one whole China that also included Taiwan. The Kuomingtang, controlled mainland China and formed the Government known as The Republic of China (ROC) and gained a position in the United Nations Council. World war 2 broke out in 1939 and Mainland China went to war against Japan. The Republic of China won the war and restored Taiwan as its own territory after 50 years of Japanese control.
In 1921, the Communist Party of China (CPC) was founded on account of the growing anarchism among the Chinese. The Communist party was of the view that, overthrowing the Qing dynasty alone was not enough and traditional Chinese culture also had to be reformed. The Kuomintang suffered heavy losses after 8 years of war with the modernized Japanese army. Ceasing this opportunity, Mao Zedong, with his army of communist guerillas declared war on the Kuomungtang. In 1949 the communist gained control of mainland china forming the People’s Republic of China (PRC), while the Kuamingtang retreated to Taiwan and moved the Government of China to Taiwan. Both the Republic of China and the People’s Republic claimed to rule the One China.
China suffered 3 years of famine from 1959 to 1961. The new policy brought about by the People’s Republic of China was believed to have worsened the famine. Citing all this, the United States, France and England supported the Republic of China in Taiwan. Acknowledging the importance of having the Veto in the United Nations, Mao Zedong proclaimed that the PRC was the only One China and secured a seat in the UN after it was formerly owned by the ROC.
The Communist Party of China considers Taiwan as province that has drifted away and has vowed to take it back by force if necessary. Displaying their military province, mainland china has over 1500 missiles pointed towards Taiwan.
Why hasn’t The People’s Republic of China invaded Taiwan?
Taiwan has been receiving military aid from the United States and has built radio towers around Taiwan to propagate democracy in Mainland China. The USA however acknowledges both parties separately and does not consider Taiwan a country by itself. The rest of the world recognizes the PRC as the One China due its permanent membership in the UN Security Council and its ability to block UN operations. Thus the US presence has lead to mainland China holding back an invasion.
Chinese characters (text) that were used for thousands of years are still used in Taiwan, whereas the PRC introduced simplified Chinese text to Mainland China which took away a lot of the original meaning of the characters. Taiwan has signed many trade agreements with the Mainland, since the appointment of president Ma Ying-Jeou. This move has often been dubbed as an attempt to sell Taiwan to China. In this battle between traditional and modernized, many are of the opinion that the PRC will eventually fall due to its economic, social and political problems, coupled with increasing corruption. Such an event could have 3probable consequences:
- Mainland China would be overtaken by the Republic of China
- Taiwan would become a separate country
- Another new Government is formed and the One China Problem continues.